When I visited Bangladesh in August, I was impressed with the evenhanded, impartial preparations for the election being made by the caretaker government and the electoral authorities, laying the foundation for free and fair elections. The high rate of citizen participation in the voter registration process and the general elections confirmed that the Bolivian people have a strong commitment to democratic life and that elections are regarded as a legitimate means to settle differences. Cherokee Nation Elections United States March 14, This is the final report of the Carter Center's limited observation mission to monitor the Cherokee Nation special election for principal chief during September and October in Oklahoma.
Presidential debates and their effects: Research roundup By Denise-Marie Ordway and John Wihbey The news media often anticipate televised presidential debates as a national event of great importance — a kind of Super Bowl of American democracy.
But political scientists have noted that, in contrast to the party conventions, the general election debates do not typically have dramatic effects on voters. To the extent that the debates are important in terms of persuasion, the format may slightly favor the challenger, about whom the public knows less.
The classic example cited is John F. Kennedy though research from political scientist Sydney Kraus confirms the proverbial notion that he won over the television audience but not the radio listenership. Though reporters often look for a winner and loser, viewers experience the debate differently, making two simultaneous judgments: In these often disparaged encounters, the presidential and vice presidential nominees took on the deceptions perpetrated by the other side, including those on health care and taxing proposals.
The salience of a given policy or campaign issue in the public mind can rise as a result, and this may play to the strength or weakness of a particular campaign. Still, political scientists caution against overestimating the influence and even democratic utility of debates in general; and they put caveats on the ability of social science to measure their true effects.
Experimental studies confirm that citizens have a great deal of difficulty making meaningful judgments about two competing messages and assertions of fact, as in a debate setting.
Increased voter knowledge on issues, too, does not necessarily equal persuasion, and studies confirm the idea that the debates reinforce partisan positions, with partisans merely becoming more critical. While the number of households watching presidential and vice-presidential debates has grown substantially sincethe proportion of participating households has dropped.
This white paper takes a close look at debate viewership, including why audiences watch debates, the changing demographics of viewership and alternate ways to measure viewership. Among the key takeaways from the report: Twenty-nine percent of people surveyed said that presidential debates were more helpful in helping them decide how to vote than news coverage of the campaign, political talk shows, campaign rallies, campaign advertising spots and watching broadcast interviews with the candidates.
Political Communication,Vol. By expanding the context of debate effects to post-debate citizen communication, this study moves beyond the direct and immediate impact of debate viewing and investigates indirect effects of debate viewing mediated by debate-induced citizen communication.
Results from two-wave panel data collected before and after the presidential debates show that, as previous literature has suggested, debate viewing leads to partisan reinforcement and that these debate effects are in part mediated through post-debate political conversation.
These findings provide a new layer of complexity to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying debate effects. Communication Research Reports,Vol. This report discusses why these findings were observed, and implications for candidate strategy and the study of media effects are discussed.
American Behavioral Scientist,Vol. Results from the National Annenberg Election Survey show that the size of the vice presidential debate-viewing audience in exceeded the sizes of the presidential debate-viewing audiences, which is atypical from prior campaign seasons.
The same general demographic and political characteristics that have driven political debate viewing in the past were operative during the presidential and vice presidential debate season, with debate viewing by Blacks being a notable exception.
Contrary to our predictions, females were not more likely than males to watch the vice presidential debate. Debate watching was significantly associated with the favorability ratings of the candidates on the Democratic ticket, but it was not associated with the ratings of the Republican nominees.
In Experiment 3 participants saw what was supposedly the reaction of their fellow participants on screen during the debate. Participants in Experiment 4 were exposed to the reactions of live confederates as they watched the last debate of an active presidential campaign.
The researchers examine the results of an experiment performed on a random sample of undecided voters the night of the final United Kingdom election debate. One worm favored the incumbent, Gordon Brown, while the other favored Nick Clegg. The third debate participant, David Cameron, was favored by neither worm.
Communication Studies,Vol.Start studying Chapter Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. False-- Voter turnout is much higher in years when there is a presidential election than it is in mid- term elections.
T/F There is considerable evidence that the presidential debates had an impact on the outcome of. Latino protesters wave signs during a march and rally against the election of Republican Donald Trump as president of the United States in Los Angeles on November Ch.
Study guide questions and vocabulary. STUDY. PLAY. A study of political ads broadcast from to found that the largest number emphasized. A and C. Voters tend to prefer a presidential candidate with experience as a.
There were no presidential debates at all in. Ross Perot. This study examines the effect of post-debate analysis by two cable news networks on the perceived outcome of a presidential debate and the perceptions of the candidates, finding perceptions of the outcome differing between viewers of the two networks.
The United States presidential election of was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, In a closely contested election, Democrat John F. Kennedy defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican Party nominee. This was the first election in which all fifty states participated, and the last in which the District of Columbia did not.
In two others -- and -- public preferences moved quite a bit around the debates, but the debates did not appear to alter the likely outcome.
Details The presidential debates had little to no impact on voter preferences during the debate periods in , , and