By reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma. The lower the levels of air pollution, the better the cardiovascular and respiratory health of the population will be, both long- and short-term. Global Update provide an assessment of health effects of air pollution and thresholds for health-harmful pollution levels. Ambient outdoor air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 4.
Ozone O3 is a gas molecule composed of three oxygen atoms. Often called "smog," ozone is harmful to breathe. Ozone aggressively attacks lung tissue by reacting chemically with it. When ozone is present, there are other harmful pollutants created by the same processes that make ozone. The ozone layer found high in the upper atmosphere the stratosphere shields us from much of the sun's ultraviolet radiation.
However, ozone air pollution at ground level where we can breathe it in the troposphere causes serious health problems. Where Does Ozone Come From? Ozone develops in the atmosphere from gases that come out of tailpipes, smokestacks and many other sources.
When these gases come in contact with sunlight, they react and form ozone smog. The essential raw ingredients for ozone come from nitrogen oxides NOx and hydrocarbons, also called volatile organic compounds VOCs.
They are produced primarily when fossil fuels like gasoline, oil or coal are burned or when some chemicals, like solvents, evaporate. NOx is emitted from power plants, motor vehicles and other sources of high-heat combustion. VOCs are emitted from motor vehicles, chemical plants, refineries, factories, gas stations, paint and other sources.
CO is also primarily emitted from motor vehicles. And because the reaction takes place in the atmosphere, the ozone often shows up downwind of the sources of the original gases. In addition, winds can carry ozone far from where it began, even internationally across borders and even the oceans.
You may have wondered why "ozone action day" warnings are sometimes followed by recommendations to avoid activities such as mowing your lawn or driving your car. Lawn mower exhaust and gasoline vapors are VOCs that could turn into ozone in the heat and sun. Who Is at Risk from Breathing Ozone?
Anyone who spends time outdoors where ozone pollution levels are high may be at risk. Five groups of people are especially vulnerable to the effects of breathing ozone: The impact on your health can depend on many factors, however. For example, the risks would be greater if ozone levels are higher, if you are breathing faster because you're working outdoors or if you spend more time outdoors.
Lifeguards in Galveston, Texas, provided evidence of the impact of even short-term exposure to ozone on healthy, active adults in a study published in Testing the breathing capacity of these outdoor workers several times a day, researchers found that many lifeguards had greater obstruction of their airways when ozone levels were high.
Because of this research, Galveston became the first city in the nation to install an air quality warning flag system on the beach. Breathing ozone can shorten your life. Strong evidence exists of the deadly impact of ozone from large studies conducted in cities across the U.
Researchers repeatedly found that the risk of premature death increased with higher levels of ozone. A large study of 48 U. Ozone concentrations by city in the summer months ranged from 16 percent to 80 percent lower than the U.
Researchers found that ozone at those lower levels was associated with deaths from cardiovascular disease, strokes, and respiratory causes.
Many areas in the United States produce enough ozone during the summer months to cause health problems that can be felt right away.Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website..
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Jun 21, · Exercise improved those outcomes. Ten more studies showed, over all, that exercise therapy increases aerobic capacity and muscle strength in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Key facts.
Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. By reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma. This course is designed to provide an overview on epidemiology and the Internet for medical and health related students around the world based on the concept of Global Health Network University and Hypertext Comic Books.
Breathing is usually automatic, controlled subconsciously by the respiratory center at the base of the brain. Breathing continues during sleep and usually even when a person is unconscious.
People can also control their breathing when they wish, for example during speech, singing, or voluntary. 27th October As readers of this blog will know, for many years I have pursued the idea that ‘stress’ was the primary cause of cardiovascular disease.
Actually, it is strain. Stress is the force applied, strain is the effect that stress produces. For the sake of simplicity, I will just use the word stress..