Print Overview Autism spectrum disorder is a condition related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others, causing problems in social interaction and communication. The disorder also includes limited and repetitive patterns of behavior. The term "spectrum" in autism spectrum disorder refers to the wide range of symptoms and severity. Autism spectrum disorder includes conditions that were previously considered separate — autism, Asperger's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and an unspecified form of pervasive developmental disorder.
Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disability; signs typically appear during early childhood and affect a person’s ability to communicate, and interact with others. ASD is defined by a certain set of behaviors and is a “spectrum condition” that affects individuals differently and . Autism definition is - a variable developmental disorder that appears by age three and is characterized by impairment of the ability to form normal social relationships, by impairment of the ability to communicate with others, and by repetitive behavior patterns —called also autistic disorder. Autism: A spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, and unusual and repetitive behavior. Some, but not all, people with autism .
Noted autistic Temple Grandin described her inability to understand the social communication of neurotypicalsor people with normal neural developmentas leaving her feeling "like an anthropologist on Mars". Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name.
Autistic toddlers differ more strikingly from social norms ; for example, they have less eye contact and turn-takingand do not Definition of autism the ability to use simple movements to express themselves, such as pointing at things. However, they do form attachments to their primary caregivers.
Making and maintaining friendships often proves to be difficult for those with autism. For them, the quality of friendships, not the number of friends, predicts how lonely they feel. Functional friendships, such as those resulting in invitations to parties, may affect the quality of life more deeply.
The limited data suggest that, in children with intellectual disability, autism is associated with aggression, destruction of property, and tantrums.
In the second and third years, children with autism have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words. Children with autism are less likely to make requests or share experiences, and are more likely to simply repeat others' words echolalia   or reverse pronouns.
Both autistic groups performed worse than controls at complex language tasks such as figurative language, comprehension and inference. As people are often Definition of autism up initially from their basic language skills, these studies suggest that people speaking to autistic individuals are more likely to overestimate what their audience comprehends.
Repetitive movements, such as hand flapping, head rolling, or body rocking. Time-consuming behaviors intended to reduce anxiety that an individual feels compelled to perform repeatedly or according to rigid rules, such as placing objects in a specific order, checking things, or hand washing.
Resistance to change; for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved or refusing to be interrupted. Unvarying pattern of daily activities, such as an unchanging menu or a dressing ritual. This is closely associated with sameness and an independent validation has suggested combining the two factors.
Interests or fixations that are abnormal in theme or intensity of focus, such as preoccupation with a single television program, toy, or game. Behaviors such as eye-poking, skin-pickinghand-biting and head-banging. Autistic individuals may have symptoms that are independent of the diagnosis, but that can affect the individual or the family.
Selectivity is the most common problem, although eating rituals and food refusal also occur;  this does not appear to result in malnutrition. Although some children with autism also have gastrointestinal symptomsthere is a lack of published rigorous data to support the theory that children with autism have more or different gastrointestinal symptoms than usual;  studies report conflicting results, and the relationship between gastrointestinal problems and ASD is unclear.
However, they reported lower levels of closeness and intimacy than siblings of children with Down syndrome ; siblings of individuals with ASD have greater risk of negative well-being and poorer sibling relationships as adults.
Causes of autism It has long been presumed that there is a common cause at the genetic, cognitive, and neural levels for autism's characteristic triad of symptoms.
Typically, autism cannot be traced to a Mendelian single-gene mutation or to a single chromosome abnormalityand none of the genetic syndromes associated with ASDs have been shown to selectively cause ASD. Some such as the MMR vaccine have been completely disproven. This has led to unsupported theories blaming vaccine "overload"a vaccine preservativeor the MMR vaccine for causing autism.
How autism occurs is not well understood. Its mechanism can be divided into two areas: It is not known whether early overgrowth occurs in all children with autism. It seems to be most prominent in brain areas underlying the development of higher cognitive specialization.
An excess of neurons that causes local overconnectivity in key brain regions. Children with autism have been found by researchers to have inflammation of both the peripheral and central immune systems as indicated by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and significant activation of microglia.
It is thought that activation of a pregnant mother's immune system such as from environmental toxicants or infection can contribute to causing autism through causing a disruption of brain development. The MNS operates when an animal performs an action or observes another animal perform the same action.
The MNS may contribute to an individual's understanding of other people by enabling the modeling of their behavior via embodied simulation of their actions, intentions, and emotions. In people with autism the two networks are not negatively correlated in time, suggesting an imbalance in toggling between the two networks, possibly reflecting a disturbance of self-referential thought.
Hypo-connectivity seems to dominate, especially for interhemispheric and cortico-cortical functional connectivity. The first category focuses on deficits in social cognition. Simon Baron-Cohen 's empathizing—systemizing theory postulates that autistic individuals can systemize—that is, they can develop internal rules of operation to handle events inside the brain—but are less effective at empathizing by handling events generated by other agents.
An extension, the extreme male brain theory, hypothesizes that autism is an extreme case of the male brain, defined psychometrically as individuals in whom systemizing is better than empathizing.Aug 25, · Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior.
Although autism can be diagnosed at any age, it is said to be a “developmental disorder” because symptoms generally appear in the first two years of life. Difficulty with communication and. Autism is a lifelong, nonprogressive neurological disorder typically appearing before the age of three years.
The word “autism” means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction. Autism Definition Autism is a complex developmental disorder distinguished by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and behavioral problems, including repetitive behaviors and narrow focus of interest.
Description Classic autism is one of several disorders categorized as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism definition: Autism is a developmental disorder that can cause someone to have difficulty in | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disability; signs typically appear during early childhood and affect a person’s ability to communicate, and interact with others. ASD is defined by a certain set of behaviors and is a “spectrum condition” that affects individuals. Autism definition is - a variable developmental disorder that appears by age three and is characterized by impairment of the ability to form normal social relationships, by impairment of the ability to communicate with others, and by repetitive behavior patterns —called also autistic disorder.
How to use autism in a sentence.