People must be made aware of what natural hazards they are likely to face in their own communities. They should know in advance what specific preparations to make before an event, what to do during a hurricane, earthquake, flood, fire, or other likely event, and what actions to take in its aftermath.
Several scholarly works have documented a heightened military involvement in responding to natural and man-made disasters. This article discusses the role of the military in responding to natural and man-made disasters and explores the historical involvement of military in disaster management.
The military is accepted as a disaster response agency that provides assistance and resources to civil communities in natural disasters, both in the US and abroad.
Most of the time, military support is activated only in large-scale disasters since small-scale disasters can be handled with the capacity of local resources Anderson ; Schrader Recent disasters across the globe including the Haiti Earthquake and the Pakistan Floods in also show that the US military is an important player in international disaster response within other countries which lack the capabilities to respond.
This study focuses on the evolving role of the military within the US, using Hurricane Katrina as a case. One of the unique characteristics of the US governance system is the relatively strict divide between the role of civilian law enforcement agencies and the role of the military. In contrast the military plays a domestic role in supporting local governments in natural disasters and also provides peace-keeping functions in extraordinary circumstances Banks The US military may provide support to local and state governments by offering transportation, communication, logistics and deployment capabilities during disaster response Bullock et al.
Search and rescue; emergency medical care; emergency transport of people; mass feeding; in-kind distribution of food, clothing, and other necessary commodities; epidemiological work and disease control; decontamination in hazardous materials or radiological circumstances ; temporary sheltering; firefighting; help in restoration of electric power and other utility services; debris removal to reopen roads; and bridge repair or temporary bridge replacement, as well as offer security and property protection aid Sylves Based on the different types of disasters and requests for assistance by state governors, Schrader defines three response sectors the military is capable of assuming during a disaster mission: The military is also the first force that acquires updated equipment and trained personnel in response to establishing communication in disasters Schrader These benefits include; manpower with specific qualifications, skills and expertise, strategic and rapid mobilization, updated technology and a variety of equipment helicopters, aircraft, earth-moving machinery, respirators, medical supplies, power and lighting equipment, under-water capability, etc.
In addition to these advantages, the military assists in sheltering, the construction of temporary housing and restoration of minimal critical infrastructure water, electric, sanitation, communication infrastructure, etc.
Miskel ; Schrader Brake stresses the importance of the inter- organizational relations of the Department of Defense DOD with the Department of Homeland Security DHSemphasizing the capabilities and resources of the military in effectively dealing with terrorism and natural disaster situations.
These events have increased the importance of the military, turning it into one of the main partners of federal, state, and local agencies in responding to disasters and emergencies Bowman With so many diverse military units existing and responding, coordination and interoperability problems in response operations have come to light.
But public sector emergency relief channels are simply Atlantic Hurricane season provided myriad case studies in the importance of supply chains during disasters. By many measures, the Atlantic Hurricane Season was historic, particularly for its This section includes an overview of three critical supply chains during natural. Apr 21, · Natural disasters can seriously injure large numbers of people, contribute to the spread of some diseases, disrupt sanitation, and interrupt normal public services. Travelers should be familiar with risks for natural disasters at their destination and . Natural disasters include a range of events such as earthquake, hurricane, avalanche, flood, severe storms and volcanic eruptions. As .
This paper aims to answer the following research questions: How has the role of the military evolved in the US? What are the legal and national frameworks guiding and changing the role of the military? The first part of the paper the various laws and legislations outlining the role of the military in disaster response.
An overview of the legal framework is followed by a discussion on the evolution of the national response frameworks and plans that guide and delineate the role and responsibilities of the military.
Legal and National Frameworks Guiding the Role of the Military in Disasters To appreciate the importance and central role of the military in disasters, it is essential to understand the historical evolution of the roles and responsibilities of the military with an emphasis on existing laws, legislation and national plans and documents.
Posse Comitatus Act of The involvement process and general statutory prohibition of the military in the domestic use of civilian and law enforcement activities are addressed in the Posse Comitatus Act of18 U.
The Act prohibits and restricts the use of the Army including its specific subunits or the Air Force for law enforcement purposes. However, there are many exceptions and limitations to the Posse Comitatus Act, which allow troops to be used in certain cases: The background for the Posse Comitatus Act dates back to the s when the army played an integral role in assisting US Marshals and local sheriffs in the West.
During this time the military was also employed both to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act of and to support the role of the police. However, during the US Reconstruction 10 European Journal of Economic and Political Studies era the involvement of the army, not only in law enforcement activities, but also in governance, became tarnished and politicized Geiger ; Matthews The main change in the role of the military took place in with the enactment of the Posse Comitatus Act by the Congress; the Act essentially reverted the role of the military to what it was prior to the s, but it legislatively enforced a strict civilian-military demarcation except under extraordinary conditions.
Recently the devastating impact of Hurricane Katrina once again elicited the pivotal need for military assistance and raised questions regarding precision and efficacy of specific prohibitions and restrictions under the Posse Comitatus Act Geiger Robert Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Act The legal basis, scope of programs, and processes of federal assistance including military assistance in post-disaster situations and disaster relief operations is described in the Robert T.
This Act allows assistance to states, local governments, tribal nations, individuals, and organizations in major disasters and emergencies Buchalter ; Nicholson ; Sylves During the s, major disasters were declared, higher than any other decade on record.
2 In , in response to recent terrorist attacks and the risk of . What is NIMS? NIMS is the first-ever standardized approach to incident management and response.
Developed Compliance protocols, standards and guidelines for determining whether jurisdictions are How will jurisdictions be measured against NIMS during the period to ? and other public emergencies such as natural disasters.
Crisis Management Plan: The Crisis Management Plan is a plan to address various situations that might threaten the physical safety of students, employees, the general public . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: / and they need to know how to communicate accurate information to the public during a natural disaster. The Committee recommends that community-wide awareness and education programs about natural disasters be made a national priority. outbreaks of novel infectious diseases to natural disasters to potential terrorist attacks, DHS is dedicated to During this initial period, DHS has supported its local partners’ efforts through the provision of technical system designed to support public safety communications across all sectors. WHEPP program has installed a.
Founded by APHL, CDC and the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other partners to assure protocols, guidance and other resources are up to date.1 • Chemical Threat (CT) Preparedness Coordinator training and worker safety duties. During this same year, funding was not yet in. During emergencies, the importance of our country's communications systems becomes clear.
These communications systems include the wireline and wireless telephone networks, broadcast and cable television, radio, Public Safety Land Mobile Radio, satellite systems and increasingly the Internet. The disasters where they had worked included 29 disease outbreaks of 13 different diseases in 5 regions and 16 countries, 18 natural disasters of 6 different types (e.g., tsunami, earthquake, flood, etc.) in 5 regions and 15 countries, 2 technical disasters in 2 regions and 2 countries, and 10 conflicts in 3 regions and 10 countries.
K. Bradley Penuel is the Director of the New York University (NYU) Center for Catastrophe Preparedness and Response (CCPR). CCPR is a university-wide research center dedicated to improving preparedness and response capabilities to catastrophic events including terrorism, natural disasters, and public .